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Posts Tagged ‘San Francisco’

“Sanctuary Cities” Get a Reprieve For Now

Posted on: January 10th, 2019

By: Pamela Everett

As many city, county and state attorneys are aware, in 2017 the US. Department of Justice (DOJ) added three conditions to the application process for the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (“Byrne JAG”) program in an effort to eliminate so called sanctuary cities. The Byrne JAG program originated from the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968,  which created grants to assist the law enforcement efforts of state and local authorities. Under the Byrne JAG program, states and localities may apply for funds to support criminal justice programs in a variety of categories, including law enforcement, prosecution, crime prevention, corrections, drug treatment, technology, victim and witness services, and mental health.

The first condition, called the “Notice Condition” requires grantees, upon request, to give advance notice to the Department of Homeland Security of the scheduled release date and time of aliens housed in state or local correctional facilities. The second condition, called the “Access Condition,” requires grantees to give federal agents access to aliens in state or local correctional facilities in order to question them about their immigration status. The third condition, called the “Compliance Condition” requires grantees to certify their compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1373, which prohibits states and localities from restricting their officials from communicating with immigration authorities regarding anyone’s citizenship or immigration status. Grantees are also required to monitor any subgrantees’ compliance with the three conditions, and to notify DOJ if they become aware of credible evidence of a violation of the Compliance Condition. Additionally, all grantees must certify their compliance with the three conditions, which carries the risk of criminal prosecution, civil penalties, and administrative remedies. The DOJ also requires the jurisdictions’’ legal counsel to certify compliance with the conditions.

A number of jurisdictions have sued the DOJ and the U. S. Attorney General regarding these new conditions and sought a nationwide injunction; however, so far, none have  been successful in obtaining a nationwide injunction.  Recently a partial win was handed to the states of New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Washington, and Commonwealths of Massachusetts and Virginia and the City of New York. The States and the City challenged the imposition of the three conditions on five bases: (1) the conditions violates the separation of powers, (2) the conditions were ultra vires under the Administrative Procedure Act (“APA”), (3) the conditions were not in accordance with law under the APA, (4) the conditions were arbitrary and capricious under the APA, and (5) § 1373 violated the Tenth Amendment’s prohibition on commandeering.  This case challenged the authority of the Executive Branch of the federal government to compel states to adopt its preferred immigration policies by imposing conditions on congressionally authorized funding to which the states are otherwise entitled.

While the court held that the plaintiffs did not make a sufficient showing of nationwide impact to demonstrate that a nationwide injunction was necessary to provide relief to them, it did find as follows: (1) The Notice, Access, and Compliance Conditions were ultra vires and not in accordance with law under the APA. (2) 8 U.S.C. § 1373(a)–(b), insofar as it applies to states and localities, is facially unconstitutional under the anticommandeering doctrine of the Tenth Amendment. (3)  The Notice, Access, and Compliance Conditions violated the constitutional separation of powers. (4)The Notice, Access, and Compliance Conditions were arbitrary and capricious under the APA.  (5) The DOJ was mandated to reissue the States’ FY 2017 Byrne JAG award documents without the Notice, Access, or Compliance Conditions, and upon acceptance to disburse those awards as they would in the ordinary course without regard to those conditions.  Additionally, the DOJ was prohibited from imposing or enforcing the Notice, Access, or Compliance Conditions for FY 2017 Byrne JAG funding for the States, the City, or any of their agencies or political subdivisions.

The DOJ was prohibited from imposing or enforcing the Notice, Access, or Compliance Conditions for FY 2017 Byrne JAG funding for the States, the City, or any of their agencies or political subdivisions.

There are several other cases pending, including one filed by the City of San Francisco, seeking the issuance of a nationwide injunction to prohibit the enforcement of the new conditions. Stay tuned for more developments in this area.

If you have any questions or would like more information, please contact Pamela Everett at [email protected].

 

Related litigation: City of Chicago v. Sessions, 264 F. Supp. 3d 933 (N.D. Ill. 2017); affd. appeal, City of Chicago v. Sessions, 888 F.3d 272 (7th Cir. 2018), but later stayed the nationwide scope of the injunction pending en banc review. Conference City of Evanston v. Sessions, No. 18 Civ. 4853, slip op. at 11 (N.D. Ill. Aug. 9, 2018) City of Philadelphia v. Sessions, 280 F. Supp. 3d 579 (E.D. Pa. 2017); City of Philadelphia v. Sessions, 309 F. Supp. 3d 289 (E.D. Pa. 2018)(currently on appeal); California ex rel. Becerra v. Sessions, 284 F. Supp. 3d 1015 (N.D. Cal. 2018)

 

Philadelphia Burdens New Fair Workweek Law to Impact 130,000 Workers & Employers

Posted on: January 9th, 2019

By:  John McAvoy

On December 7, 2018, the Philadelphia City Council passed the Fair Workweek Employment Standards Ordinance by an overwhelming margin of 14-3. Effective January 1, 2020, the objective of the Ordinance, which was introduced in June by Councilwoman Helen Gym (D), is to provide more predictable hours, advanced scheduling, among a slew of other protections for the roughly 130,000 workers in the food, service, and hospitality industries. The Ordinance’s seven co-sponsors hope the new restrictions will help break the cycle of poverty plaguing the nation’s fifth largest city.

To that laudable yet impracticable end, the Fair Workweek Ordinance imposes significant restrictions and standards on large service industry employers with respect to how they schedule, hire, and pay their workers. It also provides for a private right of action against employers that permits recovery of back pay, presumed damages, liquidated damages up to $2,000, attorneys’ fees and equitable relief.

After much debate with local businesses, the new Ordinance as enacted covers only those “retail establishments,” “hospitality establishments,” and “food services establishments” that employ 250 or more employees overall and have 30 or more locations worldwide, including chains and franchise locations.

New York, San Francisco and other large municipalities through the country have been implementing similar “fair workweek” laws since 2014. Philadelphia is the second largest city to adopt the practice. Like similar legislation enacted across the country, Philadelphia Fair Workweek Ordinance imposes four main requirements on employers:

  1. Schedules in Advance. Employers must provide new hires with a written, good faith estimate of the employee’s work schedule. That schedule can change, but the initial estimate must include: the hours the employee can expect to work over a typical 90-day period; whether the employee can expect to work any on-call shifts; and “a subset of days and a subset of times or shifts that the employee can typically expect to work, or days of the week and times or shifts on which the employee will not be scheduled to work.” The employee can request a different work schedule, but the employer is free to grant or deny the request for any reason that is not unlawful. Employers will also have to consider employee work schedule requests, including requests not to be scheduled for certain shifts, days, times or locations as well as requests for changes in hours worked. Additionally, employers must provide employees with a written work schedule at least 10 days before the first day of a scheduled period (14-days effective January 1, 2021). Employees must receive notice of any proposed changes to the posted work schedule as promptly as possible and prior to the change taking effect, and they have the right to decline to work any hours not reflected on the posted work schedule.

 

  1. Predictability Pay. The Ordinance requires employers to compensate employees for changes to the work schedule. This is commonly referred to as “predictability pay.” The amount of the mandated compensation is to be determined. There are, however, exceptions to this requirement. For example, if the employee initiates the schedule change, or there’s a mutual agreement between the employer and employee, an emergency, or for one of the other less common reasons outlined in the Ordinance, then employers are under no obligation to provide predictability pay.

 

  1. Rest Between Shifts. An employee may decline, without penalty, any work hours that are scheduled or otherwise occur less than 9 hours after his or her prior shift ends. However, if the employee works that second shift, the company must pay that employee $40.

 

  1. Offer Work to Existing Employees. Employees must offer extra shifts to current employees before hiring a new employee. However, if existing employees turn down the offer of extra shifts or if extra shifts would implicate overtime pay, then employers are free to hire new employees.

Employers who violate these requirements subject their business to potential liability. The Free Workweek Ordinance makes it unlawful to interfere with, restrain, or deny the exercise of protected rights under the ordinance. Retaliation is also prohibited, with a rebuttable presumption of retaliation for any adverse action within 90-days of an employee exercising protected rights, unless the adverse action was due to well-documented disciplinary reasons that constitute just cause. The Office of the Mayor of Philadelphia is charged with enforcing the new Ordinance, raising questions as to enforcement policy and litigation.

Prudent employers should start preparing their businesses now, Even though the new requirements and standards imposed by the Ordinance do not take effect for another year. Complicating matters further is the fact that the Ordinance, as a whole, is rather vague and ambiguous in terms of the restrictions it imposes and the ways in which those restrictions will be enforced. Although the legislature should eventually issue regulations to resolve some of the uncertainty, it is unclear when that will occur or if it will happen before the Ordinance takes effect next January. As a result, employers are left fending for themselves to make sweeping changes to their scheduling, hiring, and payment policies, practices, and procedures towards complying with the Ordinance.

The uncertainty and other difficulties employers will likely experience navigating the exacting requirements of Philadelphia’s Fair Workweek Ordinance is nothing new. Employment law is rapidly changing and evolving in Philadelphia at an unparalleled pace. The Fair Workweek Ordinance joins the ranks of similarly taxing legislation such as Philadelphia’s Salary History Ban Law and its Ban-the-Box Law, to name but two of the many legislative minefields presently impacting local employers.

Given this is a rapidly changing and developing area of the law, employers are encouraged to charge someone in their human resources and/or compliance departments with staying current on Philadelphia’s new employment ordinances and regulations. Noncompliance with an applicable regulation or ordinance, no matter how vague it may be written, can lead to civil liability and ignorance of the law is no defense. Therefore, it is important that employers stay apprised of the rapidly changing employment laws. The person charged with this responsibility should understand the impact a new or proposed law might have on the business and recognize what, if any, changes in the law require an amendment to company policies. It is also suggested that employers consult with experienced legal counsel to ensure that their policies and procedures are fully complaint with new legislation.

Need help understanding/navigating Philadelphia’s new legislation or want to learn more about what Philadelphia’s Fair Workweek Ordinance means for your local business? Let Freeman Mathis & Gary’s employment experts help. Feel free to call or email John McAvoy (215.789.4919 [email protected]) for assistance with your company’s policies and procedures.

Philadelphia’s “Salary History Ban Law” Gets Banned!

Posted on: May 7th, 2018

By: John McAvoy

More than a half-century after President JFK signed the Equal Pay Act, the gender pay gap is still with us. Women earn 79 cents for every dollar men earn, according to the Census Bureau.  What will it take to bridge that stubborn pay gap? Well, some believe we can and will reduce the impact of previous discrimination by not asking new hires for their salary history. Several cities and states agree with this approach and have passed legislation that prohibits employers from asking questions about an applicant’s salary history. In the cities and states where such laws have been passed, they are not without controversy.

Philadelphia passed a similar law last year. In response, Philadelphia’s Chamber of Commerce, backed by some of Philadelphia’s biggest employers, including Comcast and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), filed suit against the City of Philadelphia challenging the constitutionality of the salary history ban law, arguing the portion of the law that prevents companies from inquiring about an applicant’s wage history violated an employer’s free speech rights.

On Monday, April 30, 2018, the Eastern District of Pennsylvania made two rulings with respect to Philadelphia’s salary history ban law in the matter of Chamber of Commerce for Greater Philadelphia v. City of Philadelphia, docket no. 2:17-cv-01548-MSG (E.D. Pa. Apr. 30, 2018) (Goldberg, J.).

First, the court found that the law as written violated the First Amendment free speech rights of Philadelphia employers. In sum, the court’s ruling is that employers can ask salary history questions.

Second, the court upheld the ‘reliance provision’ of the salary history ban law, which makes it illegal to rely upon that wage history to set the employee’s compensation.  This means that Philadelphia employers can ask salary history but cannot use it as a basis to set salary.  The purpose of this is to encourage employers to offer potential candidates what the job is worth rather than based on prior salary which could have been set based on discriminatory factors.

There is a prevailing trend nationwide for salary history ban laws. To date, California, Delaware, Massachusetts, Oregon, Puerto Rico, New York’s Albany County, New York City, and San Francisco have enacted salary history ban laws, and at least 14 other states are considering following suit.  Although we anticipate future and continued legal challenges, it seems likely that laws banning salary history inquiries will continue to gain ground, particularly in more progressive states or areas where the pay disparity directly impacts a large segment of eligible voters. As such, prudent employers should prepare themselves to address this new workforce right through smart planning and proper training of employees, including managers, supervisors and HR personnel responsible for ensuring a lawful hiring process.

Want to learn more about what Philadelphia’s salary history ban law means for your business? Let us help you by analyzing your hiring practices. Please call or email the employment experts and John McAvoy (215.789.4919 [email protected]).

Waymo v. Uber – Addressing the Stakes of Driverless Car Trade Secrets and Intellectual Property

Posted on: February 12th, 2018

By: Courtney K. Mazzio

The litigation surrounded a man named Anthony Levandowski, a former Waymo employee who took thousands of documents with him when he left Waymo in 2015 to pursue his own company. Uber purchased Levandowski’s company, giving Levandowski the lead role in its efforts to get their self-driving vehicle technology off the ground. At issue in the lawsuit between Uber and Waymo was the lidar laser sensor, which Levandowski had helped develop while at Waymo. In short, this technology measures distance to a target, and so, is used in the control and navigation of self-driving cars. As you might imagine, this technology in the infancy of the driverless car development was a highly coveted piece of intellectual property.

Settlement talks were initially in the billions, but the final figure was 245 million, or 0.34 percent of Uber’s current company valuation. The agreement also includes a provision to insure Waymo’s confidential information is not incorporated into Uber technology.

This settlement not only protects Uber’s driverless car momentum in their race to be the first taxi service to successfully utilize the technology at a relatively cheap price, but also maintains Waymo’s position at the forefront of the self-driving technology. To insure this position enjoys longevity, employees of Waymo can expect they will likely be tightening its control and security over confidential information and property developed within its walls.

If you have any questions or would like some more information, please contact Courtney Mazzio at [email protected].